How much do you know about Leadership?

It has been said that without Leadership, all different business components becomes lifeless (Mullin, 2016, p 765). Effective leaders can assist an association with maximizing profitability and accomplish business objectives, though powerless initiative can hurt efficiency and put the soundness of the business in danger. The administration isn’t one cover trademark that fixes all ills, in any case, there is a wide range of components that must be available for an association’s initiative to be viewed as satisfactory  (Lim, et al., 2010).

 

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Technology has changed, businesses operations have changed, choice of transport, ways of communicating, work ethics, lifestyle and even working styles have changed so how can leaders inspire people with the old school i.e traditional leadership style?

As said by Bill Gates, in 21st Century leaders will be those who empower others  (Nankervis, et al., 2005).

Mullin (2016) asserts that work now is done by a mixture of all styles of leadership because now employees want fewer contracts and rules and more involvement, responsibility, freedom and motivation.

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Figure 2: Styles of Leadership, Laurie Mullin (2016) pg 768

 

To understand the contemporary styles of leadership, let’s have a look at this video which talks about the theories of leadership (Credit goes to the v-blogger)

 

It’s important to know the differences between leadership now and before.  Traditional leaders use to believe in coercive power, maintain ownership, deliver structured solutions, allocate work and responsibility, review performance annually whereas Collaborative leaders believe in democracy and freedom, they use referrant power, they share information openly, encourage discussions, do in-depth understanding of the problem, allow responsibilities to be chosen according to the interest of the person and feedbacks are given right away  (Uhl-Bien, et al., 2007).

Kruse (2013) identified that there is a different perception. Peter Drucker believes management is more important whereas Kurt Lewin believes leadership is. There is no right answer to it as it depends on various other factors. However, a good combination of both leads to business success. the main difference between leaders and managers are given in the Figure below.

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Figure 2 Leading vs Managing

New Trend of Leadership

The present organizations are confronting new, unusual difficulties. What we’ve thought of as initiative aptitudes—setting bearing, having the appropriate responses, controlling execution, running a tight ship—are less important in a situation of consistent change (Voodre & Beijer, 2015).

Business associations are getting to be both less difficult, with less pecking order and fewer representatives, and more unpredictable in light of the unstable, requesting, and aggressive situations in which they work. Administrative work is directed by the necessities of associations. The profile of U.K. organizations has changed from multiple points of view in the course of the most recent century because of the weights of globalization, improvements in innovation, the rise of new enterprises, and social change  (Ulrich, 2014).

 

The new leadership needs to be a mixture of six different styles (Figure 3)

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Figure 3: Goleman .D (200) Six Styles of Leadership

VISIONARY:

If a leader is visionary then he/she can think long-term and persuade employees to follow the vision. Trust plays a crucial role because a success of any leader depends on he emotional bond between leader and follower.

DEMOCRATIC

The democratic atmosphere helps employees to participate and helps to develop a respectable relationship between leader and follower. A leader motivated employees to input the decison making leading to more cooperation and collaboration int he company

COACHING

A leader needs to work towards making the more proactive team by improving their strengths and giving them confidence. Leaders do this by mentoring the employee and sharing knowledge.

AFFILIATIVE

This style helps to create a calm atmosphere. This controls the degree of disatisfaction or complains in the organisation. Leaders need to be good conflic resolvers and eliminate resistance to change.

PACESETTING

This style is different from commonading and coaching. In this style, leaders encourage employees to have a high standard of work ethics and discover their own suitable style which helps them perform well.

COMMANDING

This style is blurring in today’s organisational culture where leaders use legitimate power or coercive power to control employees. Kruse (2013) asserts that highly skilled workers dislike micromanagement but it still works in less developed industries.

One example of an effective leader according to me is Jeff Bezoz. Bezos is a to a great degree uncommon blend of visionary and ace developer — 20 years prior seeing something nobody else could see and afterward transforming it into the world’s No. 2 Most Admired Company (after Apple)  with an ongoing business sector estimation of $174 billion (amzn, +0.07%)  (Harkins, 2017).

John Adair (2000) believed that an effective leader needs to have certain traits and have focused on three specific areas which are Team, Individuals and Task (Figure 4)

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Figure 4 Three Circle Model John (Adair, 2000)

According to this model, Leadership task needs are to be able to transit its vision to others and articulate the clear gaols in most effective manner, Group needs are to develop a high performing team and motivate them to participate and in individual needs, leaders need to form a good relationship with employee and influence him/her to work and improve in certain areas (Bradley, 2016).

So which style you think is best suitable in today’s world. Comment below!

REFERENCES

Bradley, J., 2016. Effects of Globalization on Human Resources Management, New York: Pearson Publications

Harkins, P., 2017. 10 Leadership Techniques. [Online]
Available at: http://www.linkageinc.com/leadership-development-documents/files/content/10-Leadership-Techniques-for-Building-High-Performing-Teams.pdf
[Accessed 26007 2018].

Kruse, K., 2013. What Is Leadership?. [Online]
Available at: https://www.forbes.com/sites/kevinkruse/2013/04/09/what-is-leadership/#35d33cde5b90
[Accessed 30 06 2018].

Lim, G. S., Mathis, R. L. & Jackson, J. H., 2010. Human resource Managment. Singapore: Cengage Learning Asia Pte Lte.

Nankervis, A., Campton, R. & Baird, M., 2005. Human resource management -Strategies and processes. 5th ed. Victoria: Thomson.

Uhl-Bien, M., Marion, R. & McKelvey, B., 2007. Complexity Leadership Theory: Shifting leadership. Th e Le a d e r s h i p Qu a rte rly, pp. 298-318.

Ulrich, D., 2014. The future targets or outcomes of HR work: individuals, organizations and leadership. Human Resource Development International, 17(1), pp. 1-6.

Voodre, K. . V. D. & Beijer, S., 2015. The role of employee HR attributions in the relationship between high-performance work systems and employee outcomes. Human Resource Management Journal, 25(1), p. 74.

 

 

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Time to Change!

The Key to the success of any business is to diagnose the Culture, its health and Performance and its ability to change its culture depending on the new business trends (Mullin, 2018,p 536)’

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Figure 1

Nothing magical will happen (Figure 1), I had spoken about Nokia in my previous Blog that it became unsuccessful due to its inability to adapt to the new environment or to start a new way of doing things. So in this Blog, I will evaluate the change required in a leadership and the role of a leader to process the changes be minimizing resistance to change.

So what is the relationship between change and culture?

The Nayor States that “In the Holistic System, changes are going to affect the culture and the culture will certainly affect or constrain the change”

In some countries especially changes are important so that the company can secure itself from External threats. One such example is Brexit In United Kingdom. So what happened during Brexit that has affected the companies?

We wish It Never Happened!

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Brexit has made things very complicated. The rise in Unemployment, reduction of young talents, trade deficit, economic depreciation and much more.

The BBC (2018) said organizations were no clearer on these basic issues than they were promptly after the choice like the trade custom laws whether merchandise will be liable to new methods and postponed at a fringe focus or regulation laws regardless of whether keeps an eye on merchandise directed in the UK will be perceived by the EU or On portability, regardless of whether firms will have the capacity to exchange staff between the UK and the EU as they do now

BBC News (2018) stated that recently various prominent organizations, including Airbus and BMW, caution that further interest in the UK was at that point under audit and that leaving the EU without an arrangement could see generation migrated.

United Kingdom GDP Growth Rate

Prepare for the Battle

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As Richardo Semler said that “For a company to excel, employees must be re-assured that self-interest, not the company is their foremost priority. We believe that the employee who puts himself first will be motivated to perform”. This is the new corporate culture of 21the st century which not many businesses are able to apply (Semler, 2001,p 156).

Kampschroer (2007) states that businesses need to first have confidence in front of the employees to stop stress and panic situation. And more focus has to be put on employees and the generation gap is a crucial factor here. Martins & Terblanche (2003) states that in a workplace, Millenials like to be self-managed and flexible whereas Generation X are rigid and like direct work. This shows the Inflexibility to change.

Change is inevitable and businesses who take the opportunity to adapt to it or make their own ways who are the ones going to be successful as I previously mentioned in my blogs.

Additionally, there are three types of changes which businesses have to adapt to (Figure 2).

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Figure 2 Three Types of Changes: Adapted from S.P Robbins (2014),

If companies want to change the structure, it will comprise of redesigning of departments, coordination, employee motivation or Hierarchy of the workforce. Drucker (2003) states that Technological change is more about incorporating new advancements in machinery or handling them. A people change would be a change of attitude, perception, learning, expectations and working behaviors.

Bradley (2016) asserts that changing people is the toughest one. psyches influence our own particular opinions. Our mindset impacts our propensities, conduct, and eventually, the results throughout our life. However, changing our attitudes requires mindfulness and assuming individual liability for each idea and activity, an undertaking that can take a lifetime to culminate.

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Source: Cultural Change, Philip Kotler (2004) Organisational Behaviour

Change Recipe!

As Duncan Tait says: Its always better to lead the change than react to it” (Forbes 2017)

For businesses to implement change, it works in three steps. kurt Lewin model is an effective way to process the change.

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  • In the unfreezing stage: In this companies recognize that the change is necessary and tries to reduce the rigidness of work. Companies have noticed the financial instability and employment disaster caused by Brexit.
  • In change Stage: Also called the movement stage, the new behavior or attitude is implemented. In this stage, the leader  can use more technology in order to deal with workforce challenges and also has to deal with the resistance of change which can be due to habit, fear etc
  • In Freeze stage: The changes are made and established and employees are supported to accept the change with many techniques like education, negotiation, manipulation or coercion  (Kotter and Sckesinger, 1979, p 289)

As to conclude in order to implement the change, it is important to create an emotional bond with the staff and manage the team through cooperation, commitment  (Mullins, 2017).  Richardo Semler learns the need of transferring the tacit knowledge and confidence to the subordinate. Especially for implementing changes in technology and structure, a good rationale is very important whereas, for people, leaders need to use emotional Intelligence (D’Nettoa, et al., 2014)

What do you think? Micromanagement is better like Microsoft or Freedom is better like Semco Partners? Please Comment below!

References

Bradley, J., 2016. Effects of Globalization on Human Resources Management. [Online]
Available at: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/effects-globalization-human-resources-management-61611.html
[Accessed 25 04 2017].

D’Nettoa, B., Shenb, J., Chelliahc, J. & Mongab, M., 2014. Human resource diversity management practices in the Australian manufacturing sector. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(9), pp. 1243-1247.

Drucker, P. F., 2003. Peter Drucker on the profession of management. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Kampschroer , K., Heerwagen, J. & Powell, K., 2007. Creating and Testing Workplace Strategy. California Management Review, 49(2), p. 119.

Martins, E. & Terblanche, F., 2003. Building Organisational Culture that Stimulates Creativity and Innovation. Europea Journal of Innovation Management, 6(1), pp. 64-74.

Mullins, L. J., 2017. Management & Organisational Behaviour. 11 ed. Harlow: Pearson.

Semler, R., 2001. Marverick. New York: Arrow.

 

My Vision of My Leadership

Are you Ready to leads others or you like to follow? You think leaders are born or made?

This blog explains my vision as a leader and self-improvements i want to do within me which would make me a charismatic and inspiring leader.

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Figure 1 John C Maxwell leadership quote

According to John Maxwell, Leadership is influencing, nothing less and nothing more (Maxwell, 2017). From my perspective, it’s about influencing and inspiring someone in a way that helps people grow as an individual not just be limited by being a follower.

In my life, my father is my inspiration, he is an example of hard work, independence, and a soft heart. He had faced a lot of struggles in the family, he even faced very ups and downs in life pretty much dealing with everything alone keeping us in dark. Even with everyone boycotting us he always inspired us to “do the right things”. After all the problems he is still humble polite and never says no to anyone in need. He possesses many trails which I would like to have in myself.

There are many styles of leadership shown in figure 2. But I am inspired to be a visionary leader. As I mentioned in my other three blogs that an organization needs to have a strong organization culture, embrace change and lead the management to success hence being visionary is important to give the right direction to the organization (Hisrich, 2002).

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In most corporate business and almost all industries, leadership plays a crucial role in the development of the organization. As I mentioned about Nokia and Apple, both went had common drives, markets, industry, and products may be a difference in quality and perception but Steve Jobs had the vision to take the company to the height whereas Stephen Elop, The CEO ended his speech by saying “We didn’t do anything wrong, but somehow, we lost” (Shaughnessy, 2013).

It is a bit harsh but failure starts when you stop learning. Personally, I have been learning to improve myself but there’s always room for improvement and nor there’s an end to this continuous process. In the module “Leading in Changing world” I became more self-aware of my flaws and strengths which has gradually helped me become better and think better. I thank Coventry for giving me such an enjoyable time of life.

For being a leader, the first step is to focus and manage your team as that’s the difference between a boss and a leader. Globalisation has brought a lot of challenges with it which are technological advancements, workforce diversity, change in types of contracts, styles of work, mobility in work and more multitasking (Bradley et al, 2016). It is a good practice to self-analyze first before guiding others so during my Belbin test, my results showed that I’m a Plant. This means that in Creative, imaginative, free-thinking, generates ideas and solves difficult problems. Weaknesses are that I might ignore incidentals, and may be too preoccupied to communicate effectively (Belbin, 2018). I feel it is an important weakness which is true about me. Another thing I learned from my peers and teammates that I am very reserved and introvert which makes them nervous to communicate effectively. I like my introvert but I am working towards being more free and expressive.

This is also going to help me to fit the right team member to the appropriate position where they can excel. Johnson et al (2002) suggests that there are four stages of making effective team Figure 4

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To implement the model in my team, it is important to understand that there are three types of culture that need to be managed which is Power, People and Task culture (Fiske, 2018) and as a leader, all three are the focus. And be proactive, there is a need to communicate effectively, motivate employees and free them to work themselves without any micromanagement. For effective communication, it’s important to remove the barriers which are going to be my first step. Also due to the ways that the business has changed building a proactive team and virtual teams are equally important as employees are an asset to business (Mullin, 2017). Advantages and Disadvantages of Virtual teams are given below.

 

As time passes I want to be more confident, inspiring, effective, committed, creative, visionary, empowered, empathetic and smart leader. If we look at Hendy Model of power, in my leadership I would only want showcase referent and expert powers which symbolizes commitment.

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(Noi, 2006)

 

For an effective interpersonal communication, a training program will include short meetings, negotiations, language training, interactive communication, team brainstorming tasks to break the cultural or social barriers or awkwardness says (Ul Bien et al (2011)

As to conclude, Leadership plays a crucial role in implementing startgeis.there are three important aspects of business which are people (Talent), capabilities (Culture) and leadership itself hence leaders can contribute to help employees today by making talent through “Competence (mind), Commitment(action) and contribution(heart) which is done when employees are motivated, free and given chance to participate in business decisions (Ulrich, 2014).

REFERENCES

Eagly, A. H., & Johannesen‐Schmidt, M. C. (2001). The leadership styles of women and men. Journal of social issues, 57(4), 781-797.

Fiske, S. T. (2018). Controlling other people: The impact of power on stereotyping. In Social Cognition (pp. 101-115). Routledge.
Chicago

Johnson, S. D., Suriya, C., Yoon, S. W., Berrett, J. V., & La Fleur, J. (2002). Team development and group processes of virtual learning teams. Computers & Education, 39(4), 379-393.

Maxwell, J. C. (2007). The 21 irrefutable laws of leadership: Follow them and people will follow you. Thomas Nelson.

Miller, D. L. (2003). The stages of group development: A retrospective study of dynamic team processes. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences/Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l’Administration20(2), 121-134.

Noe, R. A., Hollenbeck, J. R., Gerhart, B., & Wright, P. M. (2006). Human resource management. China People’s University Press.

 

The Cultural Transition

WHAT IS CULTURE?

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We all have our national culture, differences in attitude, language, perception, knowledge, reactions, learning, and values. But in any organization, culture plays a very vital role as the focus is on an organization values and norms which is to be followed by its diverse workforce.

Kunda (1992, p8) attested that culture is where there are shared standards Administering Psychological AND Powerful Parts OF Participation in an Association.

Handy (1993) asserted that an organization consists of four types of culture which is power, role, task and people culture. Organisation Culture can also be visible and non-visible elements which makes an organization unique from others (shown in a figure below) (Whittington et al (2014); p.154).

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Figure 1: Elements of Organisation Culture

Facebook, Google, Apple are a few examples of a strong culture company (Choi, et al, 2004). We see many companies have various approaches to culture in their organization. Deal and Kennedy (1982) have explained the four genres of culture which are practiced in different businesses (Figure 2).

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Fig 2 Four Genre of culture,           Deal and Kennedy (1982)

 

Personally, I have worked in a bureaucratic management with authoritative leadership which shows that the organization culture is still using old ways of management which gave me the inspiration to write my blog about Nokia.

The Disease caught by Nokia
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As indicated by Naylor (2004), In the comprehensive framework, any change will influence the way of life and the way of life will influence or oblige the change.

As we all know, Nokia was a blooming company dominating smartphone market worldwide but as times flew, it struggled to keep its market value as it focused more on control culture that includes the strict rules, coercive power, micromanagement,  with significant resistance to change. Lee (2013) states in BBC news that Nokia was the market giant in an Era where simplicity was loved whereas now is the time for complacency.

Image result for no changesThe CEO, Mr. Elop still stated that the reason for failure is unknown as “we always worked as we worked” (Lee,2013).

Burns and Stalker’s Mechanistic and organic culture analysis is an effective analysis to evaluate the management Structure. the mechanistic culture had a strict culture with no room for changes and a total bureaucratic style of management whereas The organic system is proactive for any changes and uncertainties (Burns and Stalkers, 1966).

If we had to put Nokia and Apple in those categories, we would all say Nokia is more Mechanistic whereas Apple has an organic management structure.

One of its key shortages was an absence of involvement in stage improvement – an awesome designing organization yet in 2008 couple of individuals had what Apple had – encounter through iTunes (S

The Diagnosis & recommended Cure

So we now as an example businesses know now that change is vital and adaptation of new management thinking is crucial for leaders.

According to Rittel & Weber (1973), there are a few types of problems which act as a barrier to change management and application of effective organizational culture shown in the figure below.

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Fig 3 Topology of problems, Brown et al, 2015

Leadership has the biggest part to play in taking the organization to the right direction. Leaders today need to project appropriate leadership qualities in different stages of innovation and change in order to support, evaluate and motivate the organization. They also need to apply participative leadership says Mullins (2016).

Even, HRM assumes an urgent part in executing strategies for an HR proficient, there are three essential parts of the business which are individuals (Talent), capacities (Culture) and initiative. HR experts can add to help representatives today by influencing ability through “Capability (to mind), Commitment(action) and contribution(heart) which is done when workers are persuaded, free and offered opportunity to take an interest in business choices (Ulrich, 2014)

According to Harriet Green, CEO of Thomas Cook, there are a few steps for an effective change in organization culture (Figure 4).

 

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Figure 4, Management 2020, (Mullins, (2016) pg 555)

Hofstede (1994) contends that culture is a consolidated course of action of the mind which separates the individuals from one group or class of the person from another, on account of Nokia, expansive power remove more vulnerability shirking and is more restriction. Th arrangement is to bring down power distance and acceptance to change administration. Though Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner’s (1998) display states about synchronic time, an unbiased and communitarian culture that Nokia requires in their activity, particularly in future, they are required to break down outer conditions enough by mixing their administration tasks in order to be back in the game.

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Hofstede Culture Dimension (Hofstete 1994)
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Trompenaars  Culture (1998)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

So to conclude, The organization and its culture are in significant pressure to change its management thinking and style and adapt to the new digital era and new business trends. Companies which often fail to adapt to new changes often disappears from the radar. Martins and Terblanche (2003; p.64) assert that businesses need to adapt to a culture which embraces innovation and technology with open arms.

References

Alvesson, M. (2013). Understanding Organizational Culture (2 ed.). London: Sage.

Brown, A., Holtham, C., Rich, M., & Dove, A. (2015). Twenty-First Century Managers and Intuition: An Exploratory Example of Pedagogic Change for Business Undergraduates. Journal of Innovative Education, 13(3), 340-376.

Burns, T., & Stalker, G. (1966). The Management of Innovation. New York: Tavistock.

Choi, L. S., Ismail, K., & Amin, S. (2013). The role of change agent as mediator in the relationship between HR competencies and organizational performance. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(10), 2019-2024,2031.

Deal, T., & Kennedy, A. (1993). Corporate Cullture. Germany: Penquin .

Handy, C. (1993). Types of Organisation Culture (4 ed.). USA: Penguin.

Lee, D. (2013). Nokia: The rise and fall of a mobile giant. Retrieved 06 22, 2018, from https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-23947212

Martins, E., & Terblanche, F. (2003). Building Organisational Culture that Stimulates Creativity and Innovation. Europea Journal of Innovation Management, 6(1), 64-74.

Mullins, L. J. (2017). Management & Organisational Behaviour (11 ed.). Harlow: Pearson.

Naylor, J. (2004). Management (2 ed.). London: Prentice Hall.

Shaughnessy, H. (2013). Apple’s Rise, Nokia’s Fall. Retrieved 06 08, 2018, from https://www.forbes.com/sites/haydnshaughnessy/2013/03/08/apples-rise-and-nokias-fall-highlight-platform-strategy-essentials/2/#7826fe3a6fc1